King snake, (genus Lampropeltis), any of seven species of moderate- to large-sized terrestrial snakes found from southeastern Canada to Ecuador. Adults generally range in length from 1 to 1.5 metres (3.3 to 5 feet), but some have grown to 2.1 metres. They are nonvenomous constrictors and have a cosmopolitan diet that includes small mammals, birds, snakes, lizards, amphibians, and bird eggs. As a sign of nervousness, king snakes will twitch their tails.
The common king snake (Lampropeltis getula, with seven subspecies) is found throughout the United States and northern Mexico. It is variable in pattern and may be black or dark brown, with yellow or white stripes, rings, crossbars, or spots. The California king snake (Lampropeltis getula californiae) exhibits two pattern types, the common ringed pattern and a rarer striped form; both patterns can appear from a single clutch of eggs. King snakes derive their common name from the common king snake’s habit of feeding upon other snakes, including rattlesnakes and copperheads, to whose venom they are immune. Occasionally king snakes are cannibalistic, even within their own species. In captivity they can survive for 30 years or more. Eggs are laid in clutches of 5–24.
The other six king snake species have a tricoloured pattern of red, black, and yellow rings. The common milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulatum, with 25 mostly tricoloured subspecies) has one of the largest distributions of any snake, occurring from 48° N to 4° S latitude. Its average length is 1 metre (maximum 1.9 metres). The scarlet king snake (L. triangulum elapsoides; considered by some to be the same species as the milk snake) is a small species from the southeastern United States that feeds mainly on lizards. The milk snake and the scarlet king snake are known as false coral snakes because their coloration and pattern mimics that of venomous coral snakes. King snakes belong to the family Colubridae. Snake / scarlet king snake / Lampropeltus triangulum elapsoides / Reptile / Serpentes. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. This article was most recently revised and updated by Richard Pallardy, Research Editor.
LEARN MORE in these related Britannica articles: timber rattlesnake snake Snake, (suborder Serpentes), any of more than 3,400 species of reptiles distinguished by their limbless condition and greatly elongated body and tail. Classified with lizards in the order Squamata, snakes represent a lizard that, over the course of evolution, has undergone structural reduction, simplification, and loss as… newsletter icon HISTORY AT YOUR FINGERTIPS Sign up here to see what happened On This Day, every day in your inbox! Email address Email address By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Learn More! King snake QUICK FACTS RELATED TOPICS Common milk snake California king snake Scarlet king snake